Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It acts directly on the central nervous system to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain.
IUPAC ID: (4R,4aR,7S,7aR,12bS)-3-methyl-2,4,4a,7,7a,13-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol
Molar mass: 285.34 g/mol
Bioavailability: 20–40% (by mouth), 36–71% (rectally), 100% (IV/IM)
Excretion: Renal 90%, biliary 10%
Onset of action: 5 minutes (IV), 15 minutes (IM), 20 minutes (PO)
Duration of action: 3–7 hours